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A greener future
through waste

Sustainable waste management and recycling can help achieve a greener future and play a crucial role in protecting biodiversity while conserving natural resources. Join us to achieve zero waste and create a better future for the planet. 

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Waste management basics

What is waste management and recycling?

Waste management and recycling are two crucial practices essential for maintaining a sustainable environment. Waste management refers to the process of collecting, transporting, processing, and disposing of waste materials. Waste management encompasses various activities to reduce, reuse, and recycle waste materials. It involves the proper handling of waste from the point of generation to its final disposal.

Recycling involves the conversion of waste into useful materials or products. This helps reduce the amount of waste ending up in landfills and reduces the need for new raw materials.

Together, waste management and recycling play a significant role in reducing the negative impact of human activities on the environment.

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Fresh vegetables in eco-friendly cotton bags.

Importance of waste management and recycling for the environment

Waste management and recycling have significant environmental benefits. Proper waste management practices help prevent air, water, and soil pollution. Recycling also reduces the need for landfills and incineration, which can release harmful pollutants into the environment. Additionally, recycling can save energy and reduce carbon emissions associated with the production of new products.

Waste management and recycling also play an essential role in conserving natural resources. By recycling materials such as paper, plastic, and metal, we reduce the need for new raw materials, which can lead to deforestation, mining, and other destructive practices.

The problem of waste

Types of waste and their impact on the environment

Waste comes in many forms, including household waste, industrial waste, hazardous waste, and electronic waste. The disposal of these waste types can have significant impacts on the environment. For instance, household waste, such as plastic bags and food waste, can contribute to polluting water bodies and releasing greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Industrial waste, on the other hand, can contain harmful chemicals and toxins that seep into soil and water sources, posing a risk to both human and animal health.

Statistics on waste production and disposal

According to the World Bank, global waste production is set to increase by 70% by 2050, with cities being the largest contributors to this trend. Globally, 2.01 billion tonnes of municipal solid waste are generated each year, with at least 33% not managed in an environmentally safe manner and only about 32% of that waste being recycled. 

The United States Municipal Solid Waste Management Market is expected to surpass $25 billion by 2024. The United States spends about $200 billion a year on solid waste management and lost energy resources from trash disposal. Upper-middle- and high-income countries provide nearly universal waste collection. However, lower-income countries collect about 48% of waste in cities, but this proportion drops drastically to 26% outside of urban areas.

East Asia and the Pacific Region produce the highest amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) globally. China, being the most populous country, accounts for over 15% of the world's MSW. Despite having less than 5% of the world's population, the United States is the largest MSW generator globally, producing approximately 12% of the world's MSW and having the highest per capita waste production. 

On average, Americans generate more than 800 kilograms of waste annually per person, more than twice Japan's per capita waste production, where citizens produce around 350 kilograms of MSW annually. Interestingly, Denmark is Europe's top MSW producer per capita, with Danes generating a similar volume of waste as Americans. Urban areas generally produce twice as much waste as rural areas.

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Plastic ready to be recycled in the yard of a company specialising in ecological treatments.

The environmental and health risks of improper waste management

Improper waste management practices, such as open dumping and burning of waste, have severe environmental and health consequences. The release of toxic chemicals and pollutants into the air, soil, and water sources can lead to respiratory illnesses, cancers, and other chronic health conditions. Standing waters in waste items favour cholera and vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue.

Additionally, these practices can contribute to the destruction of natural habitats, soil erosion, and contamination of water sources. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates poor waste collection leads to environmental and marine pollution, like blocking water drains. More than 2 billion tonnes of MSW are produced annually.

Waste reduction and recycling are two key practices that can help achieve a greener future. By reducing waste production and recycling materials, we can conserve natural resources, reduce pollution, and minimise the environmental impact of waste disposal. This can also create economic opportunities and jobs in the recycling and waste-management industries.

Adopting sustainable waste-management practices can have numerous benefits for the environment and human health. Proper waste segregation, collection, and disposal can reduce the release of harmful pollutants and toxins into the environment. Additionally, sustainable waste-management practices can lead to the recovery of valuable resources, reducing the need for new raw materials and conserving natural resources.

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Sustainable waste management practices

There are several sustainable waste management practices that can contribute to a greener future. These practices reduce waste production, increase recycling rates, and minimise the environmental impact of waste disposal.

The three R's—Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle—form the basis of sustainable waste management. By reducing waste production, reusing materials, and recycling materials, we can conserve natural resources, reduce pollution, and minimise waste disposal in landfills.

Read more: Reduce, reuse, recycle: 7 ways for businesses to reduce waste

Composting is a natural process that involves the breakdown of organic waste into nutrient-rich soil conditioner. This practice helps to divert organic waste from landfills, reducing methane emissions and improving soil health. According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), over 63 million tonnes of food waste are generated in the commercial, institutional, and residential sectors annually, with only 4% managed via composting.

Waste-to-energy: using waste as fuel for energy production

Waste-to-energy is the process of generating electricity or heat from municipal solid waste or garbage. This comprises various materials, including biogenic (plant or animal-based) products like paper, cardboard, food waste, grass clippings, leaves, wood, and leather goods. It also includes non-biogenic combustible materials, like plastics and other synthetic materials produced from petroleum, and non-combustible materials, like metals and glass.

Waste-to-energy can help reduce waste volume, minimise the environmental impact of waste disposal, and produce renewable energy. The US Energy Information Agency (EIA) estimated that in 2021, 64 United States power plants generated about 13.6 billion kilowatt hours of electricity from burning about 28 million tonnes of combustible MSW for electricity generation.

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) 

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a policy approach that holds manufacturers responsible for the environmental impact of their products throughout their lifecycle. EPR encourages manufacturers to take responsibility for the entire product lifecycle. This includes designing products that are easy to recycle, providing take-back programmes for end-of-life products, and promoting sustainable production practices.

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) characterises an EPR policy by: a) the shifting of responsibility (physically and/or economically; fully or partially) upstream toward the producer and away from municipalities; and b) the provision of incentives to producers to consider environmental considerations when designing their products. While other policy instruments tend to target a single point in the chain, EPR seeks to integrate signals related to the environmental characteristics of products and production processes throughout the product chain.

Read more: 5 Sustainable business practices to achieve net zero

Zero Waste 

Zero Waste is a holistic approach to waste management that aims to eliminate waste by redesigning systems and processes to minimise waste production and maximise resource recovery. The goal is to create a closed-loop system where resources are conserved, waste is minimised, and products are reused, recycled, or composted.

The Zero Waste approach focuses on reducing the amount of waste produced, reusing products and materials, and recycling or composting the remaining waste. It emphasises the importance of product design and manufacturing practices that minimise waste and prioritise using sustainable materials. 

Read more: Net zero and a circular economy: Top 3 opportunities and challenges

Zero Waste initiatives can be implemented at various levels, from individual households and businesses to entire communities and cities. Some common strategies used to achieve Zero Waste include reducing consumption, promoting product reuse and repair, implementing recycling and composting programmes, and designing products and packaging for easy disassembly and recycling.

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Farmer putting compost in the soil of a vegetable garden.


Recycling is an important aspect of waste management that is vital in achieving a greener future. It involves collecting, processing, and converting waste materials into new products, thereby reducing the need for new materials and minimising waste disposal in landfills.

The importance of recycling in waste management

Recycling helps conserve natural resources, reduce pollution, and minimise waste disposal in landfills. It also supports sustainable production practices, reduces energy consumption, and creates jobs in the recycling industry.

Types of materials that can be recycled

Common materials that can be recycled include paper, cardboard, plastic, glass, metal, and electronic waste. These materials are collected and sorted based on their composition and quality and then processed into new products.

The recycling process and its environmental benefits

The recycling process involves several stages, including collection, sorting, processing, and manufacturing. Once the materials have been collected and sorted, they are processed into new products, such as recycled paper, plastic lumber, or aluminium cans. Recycling offers several environmental benefits, including reducing carbon emissions, conserving natural resources, and reducing energy consumption.

Tips for recycling at home and in the workplace

Recycling is easy and can be done at home or in the workplace. Some tips for effective recycling include:

  • Learn about the types of materials that can be recycled in your area.
  • Set up a recycling bin at home or in the workplace.
  • Rinse and clean recyclable materials before placing them in the bin.
  • Follow the recycling guidelines provided by your local recycling programme.
  • Consider reducing waste by choosing products with minimal packaging and using reusable containers.

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Colourful, irregularly shaped recycled glass with smooth edges used as outdoor decorative accents in landscaping.

Waste reduction

Waste reduction is an important aspect of waste management that is crucial in achieving a greener future. It involves minimising the amount of waste generated in the first place, rather than simply managing and disposing of it after the fact. By reducing waste, we can conserve natural resources, reduce pollution, and support a more sustainable future.

The importance of waste reduction in waste management

Waste reduction is essential for achieving sustainable waste-management practices. By reducing waste, we can minimise the need for disposal in landfills, conserve natural resources, and reduce the environmental impacts of waste disposal. Waste reduction can also save money and resources by reducing the amount of materials that must be purchased and disposed of.

Strategies for reducing waste

There are many strategies for reducing waste, including:

  • Reducing packaging: Choose products with minimal packaging, or opt for products with packaging that can be recycled or composted.
  • Using reusable products: Use reusable bags, containers, and utensils instead of disposable ones.
  • Avoiding single-use items: Limit single-use items like straws, cups, and utensils, and choose reusable alternatives instead.
    Composting: Composting is a great way to reduce organic waste, which can be turned into nutrient-rich soil for gardening.

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Unpackaged grocery products on a wooden shelf.

The environmental and economic benefits of waste reduction

Waste reduction offers several environmental and economic benefits. By reducing the amount of waste generated, we conserve natural resources, reduce pollution, and support a more sustainable future. Waste reduction also saves money and resources by reducing the amount of materials that must be purchased and disposed of. Additionally, waste reduction can create new business opportunities in the recycling and composting industries.

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Challenges and solutions in waste management

While sustainable waste-management practices offer many benefits, there are also several challenges associated with implementing them. These challenges include a lack of infrastructure, high costs, and a lack of public education on the importance of waste reduction and sustainable waste-management practices.

Challenges in implementing sustainable waste management practices

One of the biggest challenges in implementing sustainable waste-management practices is a lack of infrastructure. Many communities lack the necessary facilities and resources to support waste reduction, recycling, and composting programmes. Additionally, implementing sustainable waste-management practices can be costly, requiring investments in new infrastructure and technologies. 

Another challenge is a lack of public education on the importance of waste reduction and sustainable waste-management practices. Many people are unaware of the negative impacts of improper waste disposal and may not understand how to properly reduce and dispose of waste.

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Kids in a classroom learning about waste segregation.

Solutions to overcome these challenges

There are several solutions that can help overcome the challenges associated with implementing sustainable waste-management practices. Government policies can be crucial in promoting waste reduction and sustainable waste-management practices. This can include regulations requiring waste reduction and recycling, as well as incentives for businesses and individuals implementing sustainable waste-management practices. 

Public-private partnerships can also be effective in promoting sustainable waste-management practices. These partnerships can unite government, businesses, and communities to develop and implement waste-reduction and recycling programmes. 

Finally, consumer education is essential in promoting sustainable waste-management practices. By increasing public awareness of the negative impacts of improper waste disposal and the benefits of waste reduction and recycling, individuals can make informed decisions about their waste disposal habits and support sustainable waste-management practices.

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The future of waste management

Waste management and recycling are essential components for creating a greener future. Improper waste disposal can have significant environmental and health impacts, making it essential to implement sustainable waste-management practices. Through strategies such as the three R's (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle), composting, and waste-to-energy, we can reduce waste and conserve natural resources while reducing pollution. Recycling is crucial in sustainable waste management, offering significant environmental benefits by reducing the need for new raw materials and conserving energy.

Read more: The ultimate guide to plastic credits 

Waste reduction is another essential component of sustainable waste management, offering economic and environmental benefits. Strategies such as reducing packaging, using reusable products, and avoiding single-use items can help reduce waste and conserve resources. Despite the challenges associated with implementing sustainable waste-management practices, many solutions are available. Governments, businesses, and individuals can work together to promote waste reduction and recycling, invest in new infrastructure and technologies, and increase public education and awareness.

The DGB Group value

It is up to all of us to take action towards sustainable waste management. By reducing waste, recycling, and supporting sustainable production, we can help create a greener future for ourselves and future generations. We encourage individuals, businesses, and governments to take steps towards sustainable waste management and support a more sustainable future. Small actions can have a great impact towards reducing our global waste footprint.

DGB offers a unique solution to help you reduce your environmental impact and plastic use and contribute to nature:  plastic credits. Our plastic credit programme allows you to offset the impact of plastic on nature and biodiversity. Each plastic credit purchased represents 1,000 kg of plastic cleaned up and recycled. By participating in this programme, you help reduce the amount of plastic waste that ends up in our oceans, harming marine life and disrupting delicate ecosystems. With our programme, you support initiatives that work to remove plastic from the environment and prevent more from ending up in oceans and other habitats, contributing to a healthier planet.

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