What is renewable energy
Renewable energy refers to energy generated from natural resources and replenished relatively quickly, such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass energy. Renewable energy sources are sustainable because they do not release carbon into the atmosphere.
The importance of renewable energy in addressing climate instability
Renewable energy is an essential alternative to non-renewable energy sources, a leading contributor to carbon emissions. Renewable-energy sources emit little to no carbon emissions during their operation. By replacing non-renewable energy sources with renewable ones, we can significantly reduce carbon emissions and slow down the rate of changing environmental conditions.
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Overview of renewable-energy sources
- Solar: Solar power is a form of renewable energy that harnesses energy from the sun and converts it into usable electricity.
- Wind: Wind power is popular due to its many benefits. One of the main advantages of wind power is it does not release carbon emissions into the atmosphere.
- Hydro: Hydropower is a water-based clean and renewable energy source that is highly efficient and provides a reliable source of electricity.
- Geothermal: Geothermal energy converts into usable electricity through geothermal power plants, which consist of wells drilled deep into the ground to access hot water or steam.
- Biomass: Biomass is a form of renewable energy that is derived from organic matter, such as plants, wood, and agricultural waste. This organic matter can be burned or converted into other forms of energy, such as liquid biofuels or biogas. It provides a reliable source of electricity and heating.
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Overview of solar energy
The sun's rays generate solar energy. It can be harnessed using many technologies, such as solar panels, which convert the sun's rays into usable electricity.
Types of solar-energy systems
Several types of solar-energy systems can be used to generate electricity and heat using the power of the sun. Here are some of the most common types:
- Photovoltaic (PV) systems: PV systems are the most common solar energy system and generate electricity directly from the sun's rays.
- Concentrated solar power (CSP) systems: CSP systems use mirrors or lenses to focus sunlight onto a small area, which heats a fluid to generate electricity.
Pros and cons of solar energy
Pros of solar energy
- Renewable and sustainable: Solar energy is a renewable and sustainable energy source that is used without depleting natural resources.
- Clean and emissions-free: Solar energy is a clean and emissions-free energy source, which means that it does not contribute to air pollution or carbon emissions.
Cons of solar energy
- Weather-dependent: Solar-energy systems rely on sunlight, meaning they are weather-dependent and may not be able to generate electricity during periods of low sunlight.
- High upfront costs: The upfront costs of installing solar-energy systems can be high, although the long-term cost savings can offset this initial investment.
Examples of solar-energy projects
There are many examples of solar-energy projects around the world that showcase the versatility and potential of solar power. Here are some notable examples:
- Noor Complex Solar Power Plant, Morocco: This is one of the world's largest concentrated solar power plants. It is located in the Sahara Desert and covers an area of 3,000 hectares with a total capacity of 580 megawatts.
- Solar Star, United States: This is currently the largest solar power plant in the world. It is located in California and has a total capacity of 579 megawatts, covering an area of 13 square kilometres.
Solar energy farm and agricultural fields in the countryside.
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Overview of wind energy
Wind energy is a type of renewable energy that harnesses the power of the wind to generate electricity. It is a clean, sustainable and cost-effective alternative to traditional energy sources such as coal, oil, and gas.
Types of wind turbines
- Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT): These are seen in large wind farms. They have a horizontal axis and are designed to face the wind.
- Vertical-axis wind turbines (VAWT): These turbines have a vertical axis, and the blades rotate around this axis. They are typically smaller than HAWTs and are often used for small-scale applications such as residential homes.
Pros and cons of wind energy
Pros of wind energy
- Renewable: Wind energy is a renewable-energy source, meaning it can be used indefinitely as long as the wind keeps blowing.
- Environmentally friendly: Wind energy does not produce harmful emissions or greenhouse gases, which makes it an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels.
Cons of wind energy
- Intermittent: The wind is an intermittent energy source, meaning it can only generate electricity when the wind blows, and the power output can also be variable.
- Land use: Wind turbines require large areas of land to be installed, which can be a problem in densely populated areas.
Examples of wind energy projects
- Gansu Wind Farm, China: This wind farm is the largest in the world, with a capacity of 22,500 megawatts. It is located in the Gobi Desert.
- Horns Rev, Denmark: The Horns Rev offshore wind farm is located in the North Sea and has a capacity of 400 megawatts.
- Alta Wind Energy Center, USA: This wind farm in California is the largest onshore wind farm in the United States, with a capacity of 1,550 megawatts.
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Overview of hydro energy
Hydro energy, also known as hydropower, is a form of renewable energy that harnesses the power of flowing water to generate electricity. Hydroelectric power plants generate around 16% of the world's electricity.
Types of hydroelectric power plants
Several different types of hydroelectric power plants vary in their design and how they generate electricity. Some of the most common types include:
- Conventional hydroelectric: Conventional hydroelectric power plants are the most common type of hydroelectric power plant. These power plants typically use the power of falling water to turn turbines and generators, producing electricity.
- Pumped storage: These plants are designed to store excess energy from other power sources, such as wind or solar power, by pumping water from a lower reservoir to a higher reservoir when demand is low.
- Run-of-river: These plants use the natural flow of a river to generate electricity. Water is diverted from the river and channelled through turbines before being returned to the river downstream.
- Tidal power: These plants harness the energy of the tides by using turbines to capture the kinetic energy of moving water. Tidal power plants can be constructed in estuaries or along the coastline.
Pros and cons of hydro energy
Pros of hydro energy
- Renewable: Hydro energy is a renewable and sustainable energy source as long as there is a constant supply of water. This makes it an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels.
- Clean: Hydro energy does not produce carbon emissions or other air pollutants, which means it has a low carbon footprint and is considered a clean energy source.
Cons of hydro energy
- Environmental impact: Large hydroelectric projects can have significant environmental impacts, such as the displacement of communities, loss of wildlife habitat, and changes to river ecosystems.
- Upfront costs: The construction of large hydroelectric dams can be expensive and require a significant upfront investment, which can be a barrier to entry for many countries and organisations.
Hydroelectric Itaipu Dam, Parana River.
Examples of hydro energy projects
- Three Gorges Dam, China: This is the world's largest hydroelectric power station located on the Yangtze River. It generates 22,500 megawatts of electricity.
- Itaipu Dam, Brazil, Paraguay: This is the second-largest hydroelectric power station in the world, producing 14,000 megawatts of electricity. It is located on the Paraná River.
- Grand Coulee Dam, USA: This dam is located on the Columbia River in Washington and has a capacity of 6,809 megawatts.
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Overview of geothermal energy
Geothermal energy is generated by the natural heat that is produced by the earth's molten core, which is close to the Earth's surface in certain regions.
Geothermal energy can be harnessed through various methods, including geothermal power plants, geothermal heat pumps, and direct-use systems.
Types of geothermal power plants
- Dry steam: These plants use steam directly from underground geothermal reservoirs. The steam is used to drive turbines. It is feasible in areas where the geothermal reservoirs produce steam with high enough pressure and temperature to generate electricity.
- Flash steam: These plants use water at high temperatures and pressure to produce steam. When the hot water is released from the well into a lower-pressure environment, it rapidly boils and produces steam, which is then used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
- Binary cycle: These plants use a heat exchange to transfer heat from the hot geothermal water or brine to a secondary fluid with a lower boiling point, such as isobutene or pentane.
Pros and cons of geothermal energy
Pros of geothermal energy
- Sustainable: Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source constantly replenished by the Earth's natural processes. As long as the Earth's core produces heat, geothermal energy will remain a sustainable energy source.
- Low emissions: Geothermal energy is a low-emission energy source. It is a clean alternative to fossil fuels, which produce high levels of carbon emissions.
Cons of geothermal energy
- Limited availability: Geothermal energy is available in suitable geological conditions, such as active volcanic regions or areas with high temperatures and pressure gradients.
- High upfront costs: Building a geothermal power plant or drilling a geothermal well can be expensive, and the initial investment may take several years to recoup. This can be a barrier to developing geothermal energy in some areas.
Examples of geothermal energy projects
- The Geysers in California: The Geysers is the largest geothermal power plant in the world, located in the Mayacamas Mountains of California. It has a capacity of 1,517 megawatts and produces enough electricity to power over one million homes.
- Nesjavellir in Iceland: The Nesjavellir geothermal power plant in Iceland has a capacity of 120 megawatts and provides heat and electricity to the capital city, Reykjavik. It is one of the largest geothermal power plants in the world and has been in operation since 1990.
Overview of biomass energy
Biomass energy is a type of renewable energy derived from organic matter, such as plant material, agricultural waste, forestry residues, and municipal solid waste. It is a form of carbon-neutral energy, as the carbon dioxide emitted during combustion is offset by the carbon dioxide absorbed during the growth of the plants used to produce the biomass.
Types of biomass energy sources
Several types of biomass energy sources can be used to produce renewable energy, including:
- Wood and wood waste: Wood and wood waste are the most common biomass energy sources. This includes everything from forestry residues like sawdust and bark to urban wood waste like old furniture and pallets.
- Municipal solid waste: Municipal solid waste, or garbage, can be processed to extract organic materials that can be used to produce biogas through anaerobic digestion.
- Landfill gas and biogas: Landfill gas is a byproduct of decomposing organic waste in landfills. It is primarily composed of methane and can be captured and used as a renewable-energy source.
Pros and cons of biomass energy
Pros of biomass energy
- Renewable: Biomass is a renewable-energy source as it can be replenished through sustainable forestry practices and agricultural practices.
- Carbon-neutral: Biomass energy is considered carbon-neutral as the carbon dioxide emitted during combustion is offset by the carbon dioxide absorbed during the growth of the plants used to produce the biomass.
Cons of biomass energy
- Land use: Large-scale biomass production can compete with food production and other land uses.
- Emissions: The combustion of biomass can emit pollutants such as particulate matter and nitrogen oxides.
Examples of biomass energy projects
- Drax Power Station, UK: The Drax Power Station in North Yorkshire is one of the largest biomass power plants in the world. It has been converted from a coal-fired power station to use wood pellets as fuel sourced from sustainable forestry practices.
- Masdar City, UAE: Masdar City is a planned sustainable city in Abu Dhabi designed to be powered by renewable-energy sources. One of the energy sources being used is a biomass plant that uses waste wood as fuel.
Hand full of wood waste from eucalyptus trees.
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The future of renewable energy
Current state of renewable energy adoption
The world seeks to reduce carbon emissions and transition to more sustainable-energy sources. Here are some key facts about the current state of renewable energy adoption:
- Installed capacity: According to the International Energy Agency, renewable energy represents almost 30% of the world's total installed power capacity.
- Wind and solar: Wind and solar are the fastest-growing sources of renewable energy, with wind energy accounting for 53% of global renewable energy capacity in 2020 and solar energy accounting for 27%.
Future growth of renewable energy
The future growth of renewable energy is driven by several factors, including:
- Falling costs: The cost of renewable-energy technologies, particularly solar and wind, has been falling rapidly in recent years, making them increasingly competitive with fossil fuels.
- Technology innovation: There is ongoing research and development into renewable-energy technologies, leading to improved efficiency, lower costs and increased scalability.
Read more: The history and future of renewable energy
Challenges and barriers to renewable energy adoption
Several challenges and barriers need to be addressed to accelerate the transition to renewable energy sources. Some key challenges and barriers include:
- Intermittency and variability: Renewable-energy sources such as wind and solar are intermittent and variable, meaning that they are not always available, and their output can fluctuate depending on weather conditions.
- Energy storage: The intermittency of some renewable energy sources highlights the need for energy storage solutions that can store excess energy when it is available and release it when needed.
Innovations in renewable-energy technology
Many exciting innovations in renewable-energy technology are helping to drive down costs and improve efficiency. Some of the key innovations include:
- Advanced solar technologies: Advances in solar cell technology are making solar energy more efficient and cost-effective. For example, new materials such as perovskite are developed to increase solar cell efficiency.
- Wind turbine technology: Advances in wind turbine design are increasing the efficiency and reliability of wind energy. New materials and manufacturing techniques are helping reduce costs and improve performance, and larger turbines are being developed to capture more wind energy.
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Recap of the importance of renewable energy
Renewable energy is crucial for addressing the urgent challenges of changing environmental conditions, energy security, and economic development. By transitioning away from fossil fuels and towards clean, renewable energy sources, we can reduce carbon emissions and improve air quality and public health.
The benefits of renewable energy are already experienced in many countries around the world, with rapid growth in the deployment of solar, wind, geothermal, and other renewable-energy sources.
DGB Group is committed to a sustainable, low-carbon future
The role of DGB Group as a project developer of high-quality, large-scale carbon and biodiversity projects accredited by leading verification standards is to facilitate the transition towards a more sustainable and low-carbon future. We achieve this by developing projects that focus on nature conservation and helping biodiversity flourish while also supporting governments and corporations in achieving net-zero emissions through verified emission reduction credits.
By developing high-quality carbon and biodiversity projects, DGB is helping to reduce carbon emissions, protect natural habitats, promote biodiversity, and support sustainability.
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