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Ultimate guide to Africa’s 47 afforestation and reforestation projects

In today's environmental climate, global deforestation and land degradation severely threaten biodiversity, food security, and environmental services. To address these crises, afforestation and reforestation projects are paramount. Global initiatives are vigorously working to reverse the adverse impacts of deforestation with innovative measures and projects.

Africa’s 47 carbon afforestation and reforestation projects_an artisan working in Kenya Tree Nursery_visual 1A local community member working in a Kenya tree nursery as a part of the Hongera Reforestation Project, DGB.  

Introduction to Africa's green revolution

Amongst these initiatives, Verra stands out, boasting a total of 307 Afforestation and Reforestation (AR) projects in its Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) registry categorised under Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) and emphasising Afforestation, Reforestation, and Revegetation (ARR) activities. Africa plays a pivotal role in these green endeavours, housing 57 of these projects.

Some of these initiatives in Africa are bundled under broader programmes, ensuring streamlined efforts and maximum impact. In Kenya, we find a stellar example, with eight of its ARR projects operating under the International Small Group and Tree Planting Program (TIST). Likewise, in Uganda, TIST is making significant strides in this arena, contributing seven projects. When considering all grouped projects, it brings the total 57 projects in the Verra registry back to 36 independent ARR programmes.

Further bolstering these actions, the Gold Standard Impact Registry throws its weight behind the cause, cataloguing an additional 13 AR projects in Africa. Four of these fall under the same two programmes, which means there are 11 unique programmes in this registry.

As we explore these initiatives, we'll examine the intricate details of Africa's 47 AR projects. Each plays a crucial role in reshaping Africa's carbon project landscape and promoting afforestation and reforestation.

Understanding AR: the basics of afforestation and reforestation

Afforestation and Reforestation (AR) refer to the process of establishing forests on lands that have been without forests for a certain period. While afforestation involves converting land that has never been forested into a forested area, reforestation pertains to replanting trees in areas where forests have been cut down or destroyed.

Africa's dedication to AR projects is not just about numbers; it's about the continent's recognition of the importance of forests in mitigating environmental harm, preserving biodiversity, and supporting local communities. The vast landscapes of Africa, ranging from the Sahara's fringes to the lush plains of the south, offer immense potential for AR projects. They bring environmental benefits and also provide socio-economic opportunities for local communities.

Read more: Reforestation: 10 amazing benefits of planting trees

Central to the success of many of these AR projects is the involvement of local communities. In regions where traditional livelihoods have been threatened by changing climate patterns and deforestation, AR projects can make a significant impact. They provide alternative sources of income, from tree planting to sustainable forest management. Moreover, these projects often come with training programmes, equipping locals with skills and knowledge that benefit them in the long run.

Africa’s 47 carbon afforestation and reforestation projects_locals working in Kenya Tree Nursery_visual 2Locals working in a Kenya tree Nunsery as a part of the Hongera Reforestation Project, DGB. 

While the progress is commendable, AR projects in Africa face certain challenges. Land ownership disputes, a lack of funding, and, sometimes, adverse climatic conditions can hinder the pace of these projects. However, with challenges come opportunities. International collaborations, technological advancements in forest management, and increased global awareness about the importance of reforestation and afforestation present a positive outlook for the future of AR projects in Africa.

Spotlight on Africa: key AR carbon projects

Kenya's green canopy: leading AR projects

1. The International Small Group and Tree Planting Program (TIST) Kenya

TIST has been a transformative force in Kenya since its inception in 1999. Originating from a global initiative that has seen the participation of over 88,000 individuals across countries like Tanzania, India, Uganda, and Kenya, TIST has successfully planted over 17 million trees. These efforts are primarily aimed at sequestering greenhouse gases, fostering sustainable environments, and generating long-term income streams. 

In Kenya, the programme has been particularly impactful, with over 50,000 participants organised into more than 6,900 Small Groups actively addressing challenges such as deforestation, drought, and famine. The trees planted by these projects are already showing positive impacts by reducing erosion and enriching the soil.

The eight projects under the TIST initiative in Kenya each have a unique scope and reach. The VCS-CCB 010 project covers 2,293 hectares with 10,007 farmers involved. VCS 005 has the largest coverage of 9,120 hectares with 8,692 members, while VCS 009 encompasses 2,724 hectares with 12,433 members. VCS 006 spans 6,049 hectares, involving 29,222 members. VCS 004, VCS 003, VCS 002, and VCS 001 cover 391, 421, 398, and 353 hectares, respectively, with member counts of 2,279, 2,632, 2,283, and 853. 

The TIST initiative in Kenya collectively covers 21,749 hectares. All projects are verified and are issuing credits. These projects involve a combined total of 68,419 members. The projects’ statuses and details are available on the Verra registry.

The overarching goal of TIST in Kenya is not just about tree planting but also about empowering local communities. Subsistence farmers are at the heart of the initiative, planting trees on their properties while retaining ownership of the trees and their yields. They receive training from TIST and benefit from a share of the carbon revenues. The combined efforts of all TIST projects in Kenya have contributed to environmental conservation and played a pivotal role in enhancing sustainable development and improving the livelihoods of the local communities.

2. Hongera Reforestation Project (Mt Kenya and Aberdares)

The Hongera Reforestation Project, located in Mt Kenya and Aberdares, is an initiative by project developer DGB Group. The project's primary objective is to enhance tree cover in Kenya through two strategies: restoring degraded or deforested areas in Kenya Forest Service lands with native species and planting agroforestry crop trees on individual farms. This initiative aims to benefit smallholders by providing them with trees that generate an income from perennial nuts and fruits. The project also focuses on improving regional wildlife habitats, improving water infiltration, controlling erosion, and sequestering carbon. The project obtains up-front external investment through the sale of anticipated Verified Carbon Units, which helps to restore degraded lands and support individual farmers.

Africa’s 47 carbon afforestation and reforestation projects_young tree seedlings as a part of Hongera Reforestation Project_visual 3Close-up of young tree seedlings - Hongera Reforestation Project, DGB. 

The Hongera Reforestation Project (Mt Kenya and Aberdares) is currently ‘Under validation’. The project is restoring 27,800 hectares of land, planting 10.7 million trees, and positively impacting the lives of 10,000 farmers. It started its crediting period on 1 January 2023. The project's status and details are available on the Verra registry under ID 3321.

Find out more about this project

3. Komaza Smallholder Farmer Forestry Kenya 

Founded in 2006 in Coastal Kenya, Komaza is a social enterprise dedicated to elevating subsistence farmers by linking them to high-value wood markets. The afforestation initiative, which includes all of Komaza's plantings since 2017, has established over 45,316 hectares of micro tree farms, engaging 100,000 smallholder farmers. This project monitors carbon emission removals, with an estimated annual emission reduction of 286,630 tonnes. Additionally, it offers co-benefits such as enhanced livelihoods, women's empowerment, community training, and decreased strain on natural forests. 

The Komaza Smallholder Farmer Forestry Kenya project is registered under VCS ID 2623 in the Verra registry and is currently awaiting registration and verification approval. Additionally, under the CCB (Climate, Community & Biodiversity) standard, the project status is ‘Under validation and verification’.

4. Sustainable Agroforestry Based Dairy Value Chain in Mount Elgon, Kenya 

Located in the Mount Elgon catchment areas of Bungoma and Tran Nzoia counties, the project is led by Vi Agroforestry in partnership with Livelihoods Fund SICAV SIF and Brookside. Its primary objective is to bolster the livelihoods of the smallholder farming community in the Mount Elgon ecosystem. The project emphasises three core goals:

  • Environmental conservation through the adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Land Management practices across 25,000 hectares.
  • Economic upliftment by enhancing milk production from 5,000 litres/day to 135,000 litres/day within five years and increasing crop yields by at least 30% using sustainable agricultural practices.
  • Social empowerment by enhancing the knowledge, skills, and income of 30,000 farmers, promoting women's participation in farmer organisations, and improving overall family health and nutrition.

The Sustainable Agroforestry Based Dairy Value Chain in Mount Elgon project is registered under Gold Standard ID 6588, with its current status as ‘Gold Standard Certified Design’. 

5. Lake Naivasha Basin Reforestation Project 

Located in the Lake Naivasha basin in Kenya, the project is dedicated to the improved management of water resources through reforestation activities. Collaborating with smallholders and flower companies, the initiative emphasises conservation, agroforestry, and the provision of wood products to meet livelihood necessities. The overarching objectives are to reduce the strain on the remaining forest resources, bolster water resources, and enhance participating communities' wellbeing. 

The project is registered under Gold Standard ID 6504, and its status is under ‘Gold Standard Certified Design’. It is projected to generate an estimated 100,000 annual credits and spans a crediting period from 27 April 2018 to 27 April 2048.

Ghana's forest frontier: AR initiatives

6. The Bandai Hills Bamboo Reforestation Project and the North Bandai Bamboo Reforestation Project 

EcoPlanet Bamboo Group spearheads two distinct reforestation projects in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, both aiming to restore and conserve the region's degraded forest lands.

The Bandai Hills Bamboo Reforestation Project is a significant initiative aimed at restoring 7,817 hectares of degraded forest lands in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, West Africa. This carbon-financed project focuses on the reforestation of 1.5 million seedlings of sympodial bamboo, integrated with remnant standing trees and designated areas for biodiversity and conservation. The region, which has experienced severe historical deforestation, is at risk of further loss of its remaining tree cover without such reforestation efforts. This project works in tandem with the adjacent North Bandai Bamboo Reforestation Project, culminating in a combined effort to restore a total of 10,681 hectares, showcasing a unique approach to forest landscape restoration.

The North Bandai Bamboo Reforestation Project is another commendable endeavour, targeting the restoration of 2,863 hectares of degraded forest lands within the same Ashanti Region of Ghana. This project, also carbon-financed, plans to reforest 1 million seedlings of sympodial bamboo, combined with the existing standing trees and areas reserved for biodiversity and conservation. Similar to the Bandai Hills project, this area has also faced extreme deforestation in the past. 

Both projects are currently in the ‘Registration requested’ status under the Verra registry under VCS ID 2929 and 2928, respectively.

7. Reforestation of Degraded Forest Reserve Areas in Ghana 

The Reforestation of Degraded Forest Reserve Areas in Ghana, West Africa project is an initiative by Miro Forestry Developments, which boasts over 10,000 hectares of standing plantations. The company is expanding its plantation area by 3,000 hectares annually, producing a range of sustainable timber products, including plywood, rotary veneer, poles, sawn timber, and wood biomass. These plantations have earned the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification, signifying their adherence to the highest standards of responsible forest management. Located just north of the equator, the project focuses on restoring 5,768 hectares in the Ashanti region of Ghana. Historically, the land underwent severe degradation in the 1980s and 1990s due to agricultural clearing and intensive logging. Now designated as a forestry reserve, the Ghanaian Forestry Commission supports the reforestation efforts being backed by foreign investment. 

The project, registered under VCS ID 2410 in the Verra registry, is currently under the status ‘Registered’ and has estimated annual emissions reductions of 46,229 tonnes. 

8. Reforestation of Degraded Forest Reserves in Ghana 

The Reforestation of Degraded Forest Reserves in Ghana project, managed by FORM Ghana, aims to reforest 20,000 hectares of degraded forest reserves in the Asubima Forest Reserve in the northern part of the Ashanti region. The project anticipates an average expansion of 1,000 hectares annually. Over its 40-year crediting period, the project is expected to generate 360,943 Verified Carbon Units. FORM Ghana, established in 2007, has been certified according to the principles and criteria of the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) since January 2010, showcasing its commitment to the highest sustainability standards.

The project is registered under VCS ID 987 in the Verra registry with its current status as ‘Registered’.

Read more: The rising demand for nature-based credits

9. Kwamisa/Other Reserves Community Forest Project 

The Kwamisa/Other Reserves Community Forest Project is an initiative located in the Ashanti Region of Ghana, specifically at the Kwamisa Forest Reserve. The project's primary objective is to restore the area, enhance biodiversity, and improve the livelihoods of local communities surrounding the degraded forests. The project aims to increase the sequestration capacity of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases by planting teak, a wood biomass, on the degraded forest reserve. The Private Afforestation Developers Organisation (PADO), an umbrella organisation of private forest plantation developers in Ghana, manages the project. The initiative covers a total project zone of 5,225 hectares, with a goal to recover 3,010 hectares from the degraded forest reserve. Over its 40-year crediting period, the project is expected to remove 26,281 tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions annually, totalling 1,051,223 tonnes of CO2e emissions.

The project is registered under VCS ID 3425 in the Verra registry with its current status as ‘Under development’.

10. Community Restoration of Native Ecosystems in Ghana 

The Community Restoration of Native Ecosystems in Ghana is a landscape-scale reforestation initiative created by Three Trees and Climate Investment Partners. The project's primary objective is to increase tree cover across various rural regions of Ghana. This will be achieved by planting indigenous species on degraded communal lands or forest reserves. The reforestation activities are expected to offer many ecosystem services, including the creation of wildlife habitats or corridors and the enhancement of water infiltration, erosion control, and carbon sequestration. This grouped project has set an ambitious target, aiming to cover up to 50,000 hectares. Currently, the project covers 6 hectares with an estimated annual emissions reduction of 107 tonnes.

The project, with VCS ID 4126 in the Verra registry, is currently under the status ‘Registration requested’. 

11. JOiL Jatropha Plantation in Ghana 

The JOil Jatropha Plantation Project is strategically located near Yeji, which serves as the district capital of the Pru District Assembly in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana. Developed by JOiL (S) Pte Ltd, the project's primary objective is to expand its plantation activities to counteract environmental changes and optimise the land use of open shrublands. A significant facet of the project is its commitment to fostering job opportunities in rural regions, achieved through the sustainable production of biofuels. This, in turn, is anticipated to uplift the living standards of local communities. The project aims to cultivate approximately 3,944 hectares with Jatropha curcas. In 2018, 1,018 hectares were successfully planted, with plans to complete the plantation of the remaining area by 2022.

The project is registered under Gold Standard ID 11154, and its status is under ‘Gold Standard Certified Project’. It is estimated to generate 55,072 annual credits.

Read more: How nature-based projects contribute to net-zero goals

South Africa's reforestation journey: key AR endeavours

12. Peri-urban Bamboo Planting Around South African Townships

The Peri-Urban Bamboo Planting Around South African Townships project is an initiative spanning 50 hectares under the Bamboo for Africa (BFA) Programme, which focuses on establishing bamboo plantations using funds specifically allocated by sponsors for carbon offsetting. These plantations are set up on community-owned, marginal lands and small holdings located on the peripheries of various townships throughout South Africa. A significant portion of this land has been procured through South Africa's land reform process but remains underutilised due to a shortage of investment capital. Sponsors keen on offsetting their carbon footprints will finance the bamboo plantation activities. The primary beneficiaries of this initiative are the community members from the adjacent townships. They are provided with training on bamboo care, maintenance, harvesting practices, and the crafting of home products using hand tools. The bamboo species chosen for planting is Bambusa balcooa, which has been naturalised in South Africa since its introduction in 1660. The BFA Programme encapsulates the essence of Corporate Social Development, Black Economic Empowerment, and small-scale Enterprise Development.

The Peri-Urban Bamboo Planting project, registered under VCS ID 721 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Registered’ with estimated annual emissions reductions of 16,000 tonnes. 

13. Tree Planting in South African Townships

The Tree Planting in South African Townships project is an initiative in Gauteng by Food and Trees for Africa (FTFA) that seeks to plant fruit trees and indigenous trees across various townships in South Africa. The project spans 84 hectares and is funded by sponsors specifically for carbon offsetting purposes. The trees are planted within private household gardens, where residents have secured tenure either through South Africa's Reconstruction and Development Programme or through bonded houses. The project operates under the Trees for Homes (TfH) Programme, and the trees planted as part of this initiative represent an expansion made possible by carbon investments. This distinct funding stream is kept separate from the regular TfH programme funding.

The Tree Planting in South African Townships project, registered under VCS ID 720 in the Verra registry, is currently under the status ‘Registered’. 

14. Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve Thicket Restoration Project

The Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve Thicket Restoration Project is a restoration initiative that covers over 16,000 hectares of degraded thicket vegetation in the Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve, located in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. The restoration process involves planting cuttings of the indigenous thicket tree, Portulacaria afra, commonly known as spekboom, into the desertified landscape. Once fully restored, the thickets are expected to sequester approximately 2.4 million tonnes of CO2e over 54 years. Additional project benefits include restoring plant and wildlife diversity, halting soil erosion, enhancing water catchment functionality, and creating over 100 jobs in a region grappling with high unemployment rates.

The Kuzuko Lodge Private Game Reserve Thicket Restoration Project, registered under VCS ID 1343 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Registered’ with estimated annual emissions reductions of 44,206 tonnes.

15. Renencom Afforestation/Reforestation Grouped Project

The Renencom Afforestation/Reforestation Grouped Project is a unique initiative that focuses on afforestation and reforestation activities, specifically involving planting bamboo on 4 hectares of unutilised lands (fallow grasslands) within Gauteng, South Africa. The project operates under the Afforestation or Reforestation (A/R) methodology, complying with the CDM methodology AR-AMS0007. Renencom, the project proponent, has taken the lead in this endeavour, which is part of a broader Grouped Project. 

The Renencom Afforestation/Reforestation Grouped Project, registered under VCS ID 1339 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Registered’ with a crediting period from 22/12/2010 to 21/12/2030.

16. Portland: Regenerative Agriculture & Native Revegetation on Degraded Land

The Portland: Regenerative Agriculture & Native Revegetation on Degraded Land project by Holmstone Pty (Ltd) is a holistic approach to land management and restoration in the Western Cape province, specifically in the Southern Cape area of Knysna. The project spans 1,219,090 hectares and integrates both revegetation techniques around agricultural lands and regenerative agricultural practices. The revegetation component focuses on restoring native flora, promoting ecological resilience, and supporting pollinators throughout the year. On the other hand, the agricultural component incorporates the circular use of by-products from the farm and neighbouring farms, emphasising sustainability. The project's overarching goal is to view the system holistically, considering biota interactions and applied stewardship rather than merely applying a methodology to the land.

The Portland project, registered under VCS ID 3427 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Under development’ with a crediting period from 01/10/2022 to 30/09/2042.

17. TERRAGRN – Land Regeneration through Agroforestry in Mpumalanga, South Africa - VPA 01

TERRAGRN is dedicated to transforming approximately 200,000 hectares of degraded and unutilised lands in South Africa into sustainable, biodiverse, carbon-sequestering agroforests. The Land Regeneration through Agroforestry in Mpumalanga, South Africa - VPA 01 project in the Nkangala District of Mpumalanga Province focuses on transforming 16,000 hectares of degraded and unutilised lands. The project aims to revitalise degraded lands, safeguard food security, accelerate socio-economic development in local communities, and support the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. The project employs regenerative and circular economy practices across its business model. 

The project is registered under Gold Standard ID 12095, and its status is under ‘Listed’. It is estimated to generate 500,000 annual credits.

18. Eastern Cape Restoration Project, South Africa - Makhanda and Somerset East and Eastern Cape Bamboo Forestry Project, South Africa

South Africa's Eastern Cape has faced land degradation for a century, driven by activities like clearing ecosystems, overgrazing, and prolonged droughts, making large areas unproductive. This has led to high poverty and unemployment. The Eastern Cape Restoration Project by EcoPlanet seeks to revive the Albany thicket in a biodiversity hotspot. Using Portulacaria afra, a native species, ex-grazing lands are revitalised. This species fosters a microclimate and canopy cover, enabling the return of unique floral biodiversity. 

The Eastern Cape Restoration Project, South Africa - Makhanda project covers 1,398 hectares with 135,772 tonnes of estimated annual emissions reductions. The Eastern Cape Restoration Project, South Africa - Somerset East project covers 6,146 hectares with 211,721 tonnes of estimated annual emissions reductions. 

Both projects are under validation in the Verra registry with ID 3627 and 3628, respectively. The projects are grouped, covering the sub-municipality of Makana, and are implemented with the Eastern Cape Bamboo Forestry Project for the creation of a holistic restoration strategy.

The Eastern Cape Bamboo Forestry Project plants Bambusa balcooa bamboo to restore degraded lands, adopting a landscape approach. This 10,000-hectare project helps with carbon removal, improved ecosystem services, and long-term employment in the region. The project collaborates with the Eastern Cape Restoration Project, ensuring a holistic restoration strategy. The project, registered under VCS ID 3632 in the Verra registry, has a current status of ‘Registration requested’ and is expected to achieve 195,438 tonnes of emissions reductions annually. 

Uganda's green transformation: pioneering AR projects

19. Natural High Forest Rehabilitation Project on Degraded Land of Kibale National Park

The Natural High Forest Rehabilitation Project on Degraded Land is situated in Kibale National Park (KNP) in the western region of Uganda. This initiative spans 8,593 hectares and is a collaboration between the Uganda Wildlife Authority and Face the Future. The project's primary focus is rehabilitating areas that have suffered severe degradation due to factors such as high precipitation, complex landforms, undulating valleys, human disturbances (like fire, grazing, charcoal production, and cultivation), and poor land management. These disturbances have led to significant vegetation degradation and soil erosion. To combat these challenges, the project emphasises the sequestration of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by planting indigenous tree species and promoting natural regeneration activities. The overarching goal is to achieve multiple socio-economic and environmental benefits, including environemntal change mitigation, biodiversity conservation, local community development, and soil erosion control.

The Natural High Forest Rehabilitation Project on Degraded Land, registered under VCS ID 673 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Registered’ and is expected to achieve 74,181 tonnes of emissions reductions annually. 

20. Bulindi Chimpanzee Habitat Restoration Project

The Bulindi Chimpanzee Habitat Restoration Project is a significant afforestation initiative situated in Western Uganda by DGB Group. Its primary mission is to safeguard the dwindling habitat of the Bulindi chimpanzees while simultaneously supporting local village households. Initiated by the local NGO partner, BCCP (the Bulindi Chimpanzee and Community Project) in 2015, the project was a response to the pressing conservation challenges in the Hoima and Masindi districts. These regions are home to over 300 wild chimpanzees that reside in diminishing forest fragments on agricultural land. These areas serve as crucial corridors linking the major chimpanzee populations in the Budongo and Bugoma forests, both of which house more than 500 chimpanzees each.

The project has already achieved remarkable milestones. Approximately 4.5 million indigenous trees will be planted over a six-year period. To ensure the conservation of local forests, which are vital for the chimpanzees' survival, the project has been supporting the education of children from families that own these forests. Additionally, the initiative offers many community development programmes, including training in conservation farming, introducing new income sources, and promoting the use of fuel-efficient stoves. The project also emphasises the importance of water quality, erosion control, and leadership skills.

Africa’s 47 carbon afforestation and reforestation projects_comommunity members working on a field as a part of Bulindi Chimpanzee Habitat Restoration Project_visual 4-1Community members working in a field and preparing the soil for tree seedlings - Bulindi Chimpanzee Habitat Restoration Project, DGB.

The Bulindi Chimpanzee Habitat Restoration Project is making significant strides in both environmental conservation and community development. It aims to reforest 8,290 hectares of land and works towards ensuring the wellbeing and upliftment of the local communities. The combined efforts aim to create a harmonious coexistence between humans and the endangered chimpanzees.

The Bulindi Chimpanzee Habitat Restoration Project is registered under Gold Standard and is currently under validation.

Find out more about this project

21. The NFC Uganda Carbon Landscapes Project

The New Forests Company (NFC) was established in 2004 in Uganda with the goal of creating a sustainable timber resource in East Africa amidst significant deforestation. NFC has been FSC (Forest Stewardship Council) certified in Uganda since 2009, showcasing its commitment to responsible forestry practices that benefit both the environment and local communities. Within five years, NFC established three greenfield commercial plantations at Namwasa, Kirinya, and Luwunga. The project covers an area of 37,000 hectares.

The NFC Uganda Carbon Landscapes Project is registered under VCS ID 2881 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Under validation’, and is expected to achieve 74,328 tonnes of emissions reductions annually. 

22. Bukaleba Forest Project

The Bukaleba Forest Project is an ARR initiative located within the Bukaleba Central Forest Reserve in the administrative district of Mayuge, Eastern Uganda. The project's primary objective is to establish and manage both exotic and indigenous reforestation on an area of approximately 2,061 hectares that was previously characterised as degraded shrub and grassland. The project is spearheaded by Busoga Forestry Co Ltd, a subsidiary of Green Resources. Since its inception, the project has been dedicated to sustainable forestry practices, aiming to sequester carbon and contribute to environmental conservation. 

The Bukaleba Forest Project is registered under VCS ID 799 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Registered’, and is expected to achieve 11,903 tonnes of emissions reductions annually. 

23. Kikonda Forest Reserve

The Kikonda Forest Reserve project is spearheaded by Global-woods AG and is situated 30 km southeast of the City of Hoima in the catchment area of the Kafu River in central Uganda. The project was initiated on an eligible planting area of 7,321 hectares, complemented by non-eligible land and conservation areas spanning 4,861 hectares, culminating in a total area of 12,182 hectares. The project's primary objective is to combat the significant deforestation that has plagued the region, with the added aim of fostering sustainable timber resources in East Africa. 

The Kikonda Forest Reserve project is registered under Gold Standard ID 2990 and is currently under ‘Gold Standard Certified Project’. It has 18,058 annual estimated credits. 

24. Agroforestry and Reforestation with Small-scale Farmers in Uganda

The Agroforestry and Reforestation with Small-scale Farmers project in Uganda is an initiative that aims to reforest degraded lands and promote sustainable agroforestry practices among small-scale farmers. Located in Rwenzori in the coffee and vanilla regions of Uganda, the project is spearheaded by PURE Project SAS, an international organisation specialising in ecosystem restoration within agricultural supply chains. With its crediting period extending from 2016 to 2051, the project showcases a long-term commitment to environmental sustainability and community development. The initiative has undergone a public commenting period from 17/12/2021 to 16/01/2022.

The Agroforestry and Reforestation with Small-scale Farmers in Uganda project, registered under VCS ID 2471 in the Verra registry, is currently ‘Registered’ with estimated annual emissions reductions of 1,214 tonnes.

25. The International Small Group and Tree Planting Program (TIST) Uganda

TIST has been a transformative force since its inception in 1999. Originating from a global initiative that has seen the participation of over 88,000 individuals across countries like Tanzania, India, Uganda, and Kenya, TIST has successfully planted over 17 million trees. With a primary objective to sequester greenhouse gases through tree planting, TIST has fostered sustainable environments and livelihoods, creating a potential long-term income stream for the local communities. Uganda currently has over 10,000 TIST participants in over 1,400 Small Groups working to combat the local cycle of deforestation, drought, and famine. The trees they've planted are already reducing erosion and enriching the soil. 

VCS 006 represents a subset of the TIST programme in Uganda, covering 17 Small Groups, 52 members, and spanning 283 hectares. VCS 005 covers 723 hectares and includes 672 Small Groups and 4,248 members.

VCS 003 and VCS 004 are also subsets of the TIST reforestation project in Uganda. VCS 003 covers 157 Small Groups, 1,211 members, 610 project areas, and 443 hectares. VCS 004 has 8 Small Groups, 69 members, 13 project areas, and 102 hectares. VCS 002 applies to 17 Small Groups, 24 members, 22 project areas and 165 hectares. VCS 001 is another significant subset of the TIST programme in Uganda, covering 291 Small Groups, 1,662 members, 1,000 project areas, and 777 hectares.

VCS-CCB 010 is a unique combined reforestation and sustainable development project carried out by subsistence farmers. This subset of the TIST project in Uganda involves 789 Small Groups, 3,196 participants, 2,605 project areas, and 2,414 hectares.

The TIST programme in Uganda has made remarkable strides in reforestation and sustainable development. By adding the hectares from the mentioned subsets, the programme covers a vast area of approximately 4,907 hectares in Uganda. The projects’ statuses and details are available on the Verra registry.

Ethiopia's commitment to green: AR projects overview

26. Small Scale Community-Based Afforestation Program in Ethiopia and the Small Scale Community-Based Afforestation Program in Ethiopia – Konea

The two integrated, community-based afforestation programmes of Stiftung Menschen für Menschen and the Menschen fuer Menschen Foundation (MfM), which started in June 2022, are located in Ethiopia in the South Wollo Zone of Amhara National Regional State. This region has historically grappled with environmental challenges such as droughts, overgrazing, erosion, and deforestation, which have led to soil degradation, jeopardising the livelihoods of its primarily agricultural inhabitants. The programmes seek to counteract these challenges by rehabilitating the land through comprehensive natural resource management practices and emphasising community participation to ensure the project's sustainability. The programmes aim to align with SDG 13 and positively influence other Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

The Small Scale Community-Based Afforestation Program in Ethiopia covers an area of about 1,100 km2 with four real-case voluntary project activity areas planned on a project area of 510 hectares. Over its 30-year span, the project anticipates sequestering up to 16,000 tonnes of CO2.

The Small Scale Community-Based Afforestation Program in Ethiopia – Konea is set to plant trees across 570 hectares, with an expected 450 annual credits. Over its 30-year span, the project anticipates sequestering up to 13,410 tonnes of CO2.

The projects are registered under GS ID 11798 and 11856, respectively, in the Gold Standard registry with the status ‘Listed’. 

27. Humbo Ethiopia Assisted Natural Regeneration Project

The Humbo Ethiopia Assisted Natural Regeneration Project is a reforestation initiative that focuses on restoring indigenous tree species in a mountainous region of South Western Ethiopia. Spanning approximately 2,724 hectares of land, the project zone includes five distinct strata. The primary objective is to mitigate environmental harm by creating GHG sinks through the assisted natural regeneration of degraded lands. In alignment with the natural resource management goals of the Ethiopian Agricultural Rural Development and Forestry Coordination Office (ARDFCO) and the social development objectives of the Ethiopian government and World Vision Ethiopia, this project plays a pivotal role. Seven community cooperative societies have been established under the project, and these societies have legal ownership of the community land. They manage the areas using Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration techniques, aiming for carbon removal, environmental benefits, and income-generating activities for the local populace. 

The Humbo Ethiopia Assisted Natural Regeneration Project is registered under GS ID 10220 in the Gold Standard registry with the status ‘Gold Standard Certified Project’.

28. Sodo Ethiopia

Originated by World Vision Australia, the Sodo Ethiopia project is centred on the restoration of a biodiverse forest on Mt Damota, located north of the township of Sodo in Southern Ethiopia. The high-altitude region has been cleared for many years to facilitate cropping and grazing activities. Unfortunately, these actions have resulted in flash flooding, mudslides, and the drying up of springs due to the lack of groundwater recharge. The project aims to address these issues through a combination of seedling establishment and Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration. This method involves farmers identifying and promoting native trees that existed on the site before it was cleared. The project involves the participation of seven small communities (known as kebele in Amharic, the national language of Ethiopia) around Mt Damota. These communities are the direct beneficiaries of the project, which seeks to rejuvenate the environment and improve the local population's livelihoods.

The Sodo Ethiopia project is registered under the Gold Standard registry with GS ID 3007 with the status ‘Gold Standard Certified Project’.

29. East African Afforestation, Reforestation and Revegetation Program

The East African Afforestation, Reforestation and Revegetation Program (EARRP) is designed to implement ARR activities across six East African countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, South Sudan, and Djibouti. The primary objective is to achieve GHG removals. The revenue generated from the sale of Verified Carbon Units will be used to address the financial barriers typically encountered by afforestation projects, thus promoting the execution of ARR projects. The EARRP will consist of multiple project instances located in any of the aforementioned six countries. The first instance is the Jama-Urji Farmers Managed Forestry Project situated in Ethiopia. This project covers an area of 4,869 hectares and will focus on restoring the Jama-Urji degraded land using native vegetation through two distinct methodologies: Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) and Revegetation and planting. The project is spearheaded by the Horn of Africa Regional Environment Center and Network (HoA-REC&N) and is located in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. The estimated annual emission reductions for this project are 18,907 tonnes of CO2 equivalent.

The EARRP project is registered under VCS ID 1443 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registration requested’ and estimated annual emissions reductions of 18,907 tonnes.

Senegal's carbon sequestration: top AR initiatives

30. Mangrove Restoration Project with Sine Saloum and Casamance Communities, Senegal 

The project aims to restore ecosystems by planting up to 16,000 hectares of mangrove, with the first phase covering 7,020 hectares and involving the plantation of at least 35 million new mangrove trees. Located in the Sine Saloum Delta and Casamance estuary in Senegal, most of the project area lies within protected zones. The initiative seeks to expand the mangrove area by planting native mangrove species, enhancing the ecosystem services mangroves offer communities and biodiversity. The project is expected to benefit various species vital for communities, such as fish, oysters, and molluscs. WeForest is the Project Proponent, and NGO Oceanium is the Project Implementer.

The Mangrove Restoration Project with Sine Saloum and Casamance Communities, Senegal is registered under VCS ID 2834 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registration requested’ and estimated annual emissions reductions of 95,470 tonnes.

31. Livelihoods' Mangrove Restoration Grouped Project in Senegal 

This project focuses on the afforestation, reforestation, and revegetation of degraded wetlands in Senegal. The primary objectives are to restore these wetlands, enhance their productivity and environmental conditions, mitigate environmental crises through GHG removal via biomass growth, and alleviate local poverty by creating employment opportunities. The initiative also aims to educate local communities about environmental conservation and mangrove restoration. The project spans 10,415 hectares and is spearheaded by the international private fund Livelihoods Fund in collaboration with several private companies.

The Livelihoods’ Mangrove Restoration Grouped Project in Senegal is registered under VCS ID 1318 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’ and estimated annual emissions reductions of 30,000 tonnes.

32. Jatropha Agroforestry Senegal 

The Jatropha Agroforestry Senegal project revolves around developing Jatropha curcas plantations in the Fatick, Kaffrine, and Kaolack regions of central-western Senegal. The project spans 1,411 hectares with estimated annual emissions reductions of 1,742 tonnes. The African National Oil Corporation s.a.r.l. (ANOC) is developing the project in partnership with CarbonSinkGroup s.r.l and Agroils Technologies SpA.

The Jatropha Agroforestry Senegal project, registered under VCS ID 1071 in the Verra registry, has a current status of ‘Registered’. 

Diverse green initiatives: AR projects in other African nations

33. Rwanda Riparian Restoration Project 

The Rwanda Riparian Restoration Project by EcoPlanet Bamboo Group focuses on restoring 1,000 hectares of riparian buffer zones in key watersheds and catchment areas within Rwanda's mountainous regions. These buffer zones play a pivotal role ecologically, acting as a bridge between sensitive upland areas and the water resources they protect. The project employs specific species of sympodial (clumping) bamboo, which have an intricate underground root system that binds fragile soils, reducing erosion and topsoil loss from sloping agricultural lands. This root system also diminishes siltation, safeguarding water resources for downstream users. The bamboo's multi-dimensional canopy further reduces the rainfall flow rate into rivers, mitigating flooding and protecting river banks. The bamboo planted is primarily for conservation and environmental purposes, offering significant carbon emission removal benefits as a permanent and carbon-rich ecosystem.

The Rwanda Riparian Restoration Project is registered under VCS ID 3072 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registration requested’. It has estimated annual emissions reductions of 51,964 tonnes.

Read more: Trees are nature's water managers: the importance of trees in water conservation

34. Greenzone Reforestation Project 

The Greenzone Reforestation Project is an initiative by DGB Group to promote reforestation and afforestation in Cameroon. The project focuses on planting agroforestry crop trees on communal lands, benefiting smallholders who seek income from perennial nuts, fruits, and indigenous trees. These efforts will contribute to regional wildlife habitats or corridors, enhance water infiltration, control erosion, and sequester carbon. Before the project's inception, vast areas of customary chiefdom land had been degraded to shrubby grasslands. The project will operate across Cameroon, starting in the Mbam-et-Kim Department, involving communities with access to customary chiefdom lands. The project ensures the survival of trees for at least 41 years, providing farmers with income diversification while increasing vegetative cover on agricultural land. This project is planting over 16 million trees, positively impacting the lives of 2,500 farmers, and will restore 44,255 hectares of land. 

Africa’s 47 carbon afforestation and reforestation projects_nursery of young trees as a part of Sawa Afforestation Project_visual 5View of the nursery of young trees - Sawa Afforestation Project, DGB.

The Greenzone Reforestation Project is registered under VCS ID 4176 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Under validation’. It is estimated to sequester a total of 21.7 million tonnes of carbon emissions over its lifetime.

Find out more about this project

35. OKA 2 Project 

The OKA 2 Project is a savannah land afforestation initiative on 2,724 hectares of the Batéké Plateau, north of Brazzaville, the Republic of Congo. The project's primary goal is to provide an alternative and renewable source of charcoal for urban use by establishing Acacia auriculiformis plantations. Additionally, Acacia rows will be intercropped with food crops, primarily Cassava, forming agroforestry plantations. Half of the project's area will be dedicated to Acacia mangium plantations, focusing on carbon sequestration. These plantations will replace anthropogenic savannahs, which have a low biomass stock due to frequent bushfires. The project offers multiple benefits, including carbon sequestration, reduced pressure on natural forests, job creation, and increased farming productivity.

The OKA 2 Project is registered under VCS ID 2971 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registration requested’ and estimated annual emissions reductions of 19,976 tonnes.

36. EcoMakala Virunga Reforestation Project 

The EcoMakala Virunga Reforestation Project by developer CO2logic is located in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This initiative aims to reforest areas of the Virunga region, with a focus on sustainable practices and community involvement. The project's primary objective is to create a sustainable source of wood for local communities, reducing the pressure on natural forests, and providing a renewable resource for energy and construction. Additionally, the project contributes to carbon sequestration, helping to mitigate the effects of changing environmental conditions.

The EcoMakala Virunga Reforestation Project is registered under GS ID 5618 in the Gold Standard registry with the status ‘Gold Standard Certified Project’. It is estimated to generate 17,000 annual credits.

37. SEKEM Tree Project 

The SEKEM Tree Project is an afforestation/reforestation initiative located in Egypt. Developed by SEKEM for Land Reclamation (SLR), the project focuses on transforming barren lands into thriving ecosystems using sustainable agricultural practices. By planting trees and integrating sustainable farming techniques, the project aims to sequester carbon, restore degraded lands, and provide local communities with sustainable livelihoods. The project also contributes to the broader goals of biodiversity conservation and environmental change mitigation.

The SEKEM Tree Project is registered under GS ID 4894 in the Gold Standard registry with the current status ‘Gold Standard Certified Design’ and 5,000 estimated annual credits.

38. Reforestation of Degraded Grasslands in Uchindile & Mapanda, Tanzania 

The project, led by Green Resources Tanzania Ltd (GRL) and situated in the southwest region of Tanzania, focuses on reforesting 5,625 hectares of degraded grasslands. The grasslands had been degraded primarily due to anthropogenic-led wildfires. The project's objectives include establishing a sustainable timber source, sequestering carbon, promoting environmental conservation, supporting community development, and generating income, with 10% of carbon revenues directed to the communities. The project employs around 104 permanent staff and approximately 500 casual workers.

The Reforestation of Degraded Grasslands in Uchindile & Mapanda project is registered under VCS ID 142 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’. It is estimated to sequester 25,000 tonnes of emissions annually. It also has a CCB project status of ‘Verification approved’.

39. Udzungwa Corridor Reforestation

Udzungwa Corridor Limited will reforest 7,500 hectares of bracken fern thicket on Tanzania's Udzungwa Mountains' Eastern Slopes. The project will plant 100+ native tree species in fallow farmland on steep slopes with no road access where the dense fern thicket and fires hinder natural growth. The project engages smallholders and village councils through 30-year leases, covering costs and providing jobs. The project ensures tree survival and plans to remove 5.3 million tonnes of CO2e over 30 years, bolstering local economies and biodiversity. The project is in the Eastern Arc Biodiversity hotspot, creating a forest corridor that reconnects the Udzungwa Scarp and Kilombero Nature Reserves. This enhances habitat connectivity for endangered and vulnerable species like Sanje Mangabey and the Udzungwa Red Colobus Monkey. Moreover, the project plants vulnerable tree species, restoring their populations.

The Udzungwa Corridor Reforestation project, registered under VCS ID 3602 in the Verra registry, has a current status of ‘Registration requested’ and is expected to achieve 178,047 tonnes of emissions reductions annually. It also has a CCB status of ‘Under validation’.

40. PlanTogo 

Located in the Maritime, Plateaux, and Centrale Regions of Togo, the PlanTogo project covers an area of 31,435 hectares and aims to cover 120,230 hectares by 2030. The primary species for plantation include eucalyptus, khaya, gmelina, bamboo, and cashew. The project's goal is to restore degraded lands, ensure sustainable production, and combat environmental crises by sequestering CO2. Sequoia Plantations Togo, the project developer, will oversee the plantation activities on both its lands and communal or smallholder lands, providing seedlings and technical assistance. The project expects to achieve net GHG emissions removals of 145,690,569 tonnes over 20 years and has estimated annual emissions reductions of 1,508,829 tonnes.

The PlanTogo project is registered under VCS ID 3396 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Under validation’. It also has a CCB project status of ‘Under validation’.

41. Reforestation of Deforested Land in Madagascar 

Located in the district of Bekoratsaka in northwestern Madagascar, this project focuses on reforesting 8,972 hectares of degraded land. The local population, dependent on subsistence agriculture, faces extreme poverty, and the lands are degrading due to uncontrolled wildfires. The project, owned by the local cooperative Avotrala and supported by the Swiss non-profit EcoFormation, aims to develop forestry and agricultural activities to restore ecosystems and generate income. A training centre has also been established for sustainable forestry development, and collaborations with Swiss universities have been initiated for knowledge exchange.

The Reforestation of Deforested Land in Madagascar project is registered under VCS ID 1327 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’ and estimated annual emissions reductions of 94,452 tonnes. 

42. Reforestation of Degraded Lands in Sierra Leone 

Miro Forestry Developments has established over 12,000 hectares of plantations in Sierra Leone, with the aim to expand further with 3,000 hectares annually. These plantations produce sustainable timber products and are certified by the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), ensuring responsible forest management. The Yoni Plantation, located near the equator, was once covered in primary forest but now consists of secondary growth due to various factors. Miro Forestry leases this land under long-term agreements with local landowners and the government. It collaborates with local farmers, promoting agroforestry and providing land for subsistence farming. Miro Forestry aims to achieve international forestry certification for all its plantations.

The Reforestation of Degraded Lands in Sierra Leone project is registered under VCS ID 2401 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’ and estimated annual emissions reductions of 126,297 tonnes. 

43. Jatropha Curcas Grouped Project in Mali 

The Jatropha Curcas Grouped Project is a 3,250-hectare agroforestry initiative in Mali that focuses on biofuel development through the empowerment of rural communities. The project promotes sustainable practices for Jatropha curcas plantations. Over the past five years, Eco-carbone has fostered a 3,500-smallholder-based agroforestry system in the Kita region through its Malian joint venture JMI (Jatropha Mali Initiative). The project emphasises farmers' land ownership and JMI's technical and financial commitment. While farmers manage the Jatropha establishment, maintenance, harvest, and seed sale, JMI offers technical expertise, training, and a guaranteed long-term market for the sale of Jatropha seeds.

The Jatropha Curcas Grouped Project in Mali is registered under VCS ID 829 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’ and a first crediting term of 15/06/2007–14/06/2047. 

44. Zanbal 

The Zanbal project, located in Mali, is an agroforestry initiative that focuses on the cultivation of Faidherbia albida. This project is categorised as an AR project and aims to promote sustainable agroforestry practices in the region.

The Zanbal project is registered under GS ID 4731 in the Gold Standard registry with the current status ‘Gold Standard Certified Design’ and seven estimated annual credits.

Read more: What is sustainable land management?

45. Fuelling a Greener Future for Farmers in Malawi Through the Use of Jatropha Curcas 

The project in Malawi implemented by Bio Energy Resources Limited (BERL) centres around re-vegetation, using Jatropha Curcas trees to revive degraded land. Jatropha seeds' oil content of around 30–35% is harnessed through crushing for biofuel production, intended for domestic use in Malawi. The project spans 228 hectares and collaborates with smallholder farmers to establish trees along fields and homesteads, tapping into previously underutilised land for both ecological restoration and economic gains.

The Fuelling a Greener Future for Farmers in Malawi Through the Use of Jatropha Curcas project is registered under VCS ID 898 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’ and estimated annual emissions reductions of 863 tonnes. 

46. Revegetation with Fruit Trees in North Manica Province, Mozambique 

The Revegetation with Fruit Trees in North Manica Province, Mozambique project seeks to establish fresh orchards of fruit-bearing trees in the northern sector of Manica Province, located approximately 40 kilometres southeast of Chimoio town and in proximity to Sussundenga town. Over the initial project phase spanning 2015 to 2018, a total land area of 698 hectares was dedicated to cultivating macadamia, avocado, and litchi trees. An additional expansion of planting areas is planned. Agrimoz S.a r.l. leads the project, executed by Macs In Moz Ltda. Carbonsink Group S.r.l. is the project consultant. The project solicited public input between February 4, 2020, and March 3, 2020.

The Revegetation with Fruit Trees in North Manica Province project is registered under VCS ID 2085 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’. It has estimated annual emissions reductions of 30,799 tonnes. 

48. Niger Acacia Senegal Plantation Project - CER Conversion 

This project, also known as the Niger Acacia Senegal Plantation Project (NASPP), focuses on restoring deforested and highly degraded lands in the Sudano-Sahelian zone of the Republic of Niger. The 8,472-hectare project empowers rural communities to adopt sustainable agroforestry practices by establishing plantations using the native species Acacia senegalensis (Acacia Senegal). This initiative is the first of its kind in Niger to establish Acacia Senegal plantations on a large scale in regions where dry forests cannot regenerate naturally. The project aims to provide an additional revenue stream through the sale of emission reduction credits from the carbon sequestered in the plantations, supplementing income from the sale of gum arabic from the acacia trees.

The Niger Acacia Senegal Plantation Project is registered under VCS ID 2382/2965 in the Verra registry with a current status of ‘Registered’. It has estimated annual emissions reductions of 24,957 tonnes. 

How to be part of Africa's afforestation and reforestation projects

ARR projects in Africa are not just about planting trees; they represent hope, resilience, and a commitment to a sustainable future. These projects play a pivotal role in combating environmental harm, conserving biodiversity, and uplifting local communities by providing them with sustainable livelihoods. However, the success of these projects doesn't solely rest on the shoulders of the organisations that initiate them. It requires collective action, and that's where you come in.

Africa’s 47 carbon afforestation and reforestation projects_an artisan holding young tree seedling in a soil bag_visual 5A local holding a young tree seedling in a soil bag - Hongera Reforestation Project, DGB.  

DGB has been at the forefront of developing, promoting and supporting AR projects in Africa. Our commitment to environmental sustainability and community development is evident in our projects and the benefits they bring. By partnering with local communities and organisations, DGB ensures that these projects are not only environmentally beneficial but also socially impactful. Their holistic approach to sustainability ensures that while the environment heals, communities thrive.

Contact our experts about AR projects

For a comprehensive overview of AR projects in Africa and to delve deeper into the intricacies of each project, visit Green Earth. The platform provides detailed insights, updates, and opportunities to get involved. As a hub of environmental information and action, Green Earth is your go-to destination to stay informed and make a difference.

The journey to a greener, more sustainable future is a collective one. Every tree planted, every dollar donated, and every voice raised makes a difference. Join the movement, be a part of the change, and let's ensure that Africa's landscapes are lush, its communities prosperous, and its future bright.

Contact us for more information about our AR projects

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